Apple Started Developing A11 Bionic Chip When A8 Chip Was Released Three Years Ago

Shortly after Apple's iPhone X event this week, the company's silicon chief Johny Srouji and marketing chief Phil Schiller sat down for an interview about its new A11 Bionic chip with Mashable's editor-at-large Lance Ulanoff.


One interesting tidbit mentioned was that Apple began exploring and developing the core technologies in the A11 chip at least three years ago, when the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus launched with A8 chips.
Srouji told me that when Apple architects silicon, they start by looking three years out, which means the A11 Bionic was under development when Apple was shipping the iPhone 6 and its A8 chip. Back then we weren't even talking about AI and machine learning at a mobile level and, yet, Srouji said, "The neural engine embed, it’s a bet we made three years ahead."
Apple's three-year roadmap can change if new features are planned, like the Super Retina HD Display in iPhone X.
"The process is flexible to changes," said Srouji, who’s been with Apple since the first iPhone. If a team comes in with a request that wasn't part of the original plan, "We need to make that happen. We don't say, 'No, let me get back to my road map and, five years later, I'll give you something."
Apple senior executives Phil Schiller, left, and Johny Srouji

In fact, Schiller praised Srouji's team for its ability to "move heaven and earth" when the roadmap suddenly changes.
"There have been some critical things in the past few years, where we've asked Johny's team to do something on a different schedule, on a different plan than they had in place for years, and they moved heaven and earth and done it, and it's remarkable to see."
A11 Bionic six-core chip has two performance cores that are 25 percent faster, and four high-efficiency cores that are 70 percent faster, than the A10 chip in iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus. Early benchmarks suggest the A11 Bionic is even on par with the performance of Apple's latest 13-inch MacBook Pro models.

The A11 chip is more efficient at multi-threaded tasks thanks to a second-generation performance controller that is able to access all six of the cores simultaneously if a particular task demands it.
Gaming might use more cores, said Srouji, but something as simple as predictive texting, where the system suggests the next word to type, can tap into the high-performance CPUs, as well.
The A11 chip also has an Apple-designed neural engine that handles facial recognition for Face ID and Animoji, and other machine learning algorithms. The dual-core engine recognizes people, places, and objects, and processes machine learning tasks at up to 600 billion operations per second, according to Apple.
“When you look at applications and software, there are certain algorithms that are better off using a functional programming model,” said Srouji.

This includes the iPhone X’s new face tracking and Face ID as well as the augmented-reality-related object detection. All of them use neural networks, machine learning or deep learning (which is part of machine learning). This kind of neural processing could run on a CPU or, preferably, a GPU. “But for these neural networking kinds of programming models, implementing custom silicon that’s targeted for that application, that will perform the exact same tasks, is much more energy efficient than a graphics engine,” said Srouji.
Apple's new iPhone 8, iPhone 8 Plus, and iPhone X are all equipped with an A11 chip.

In related news, Carnegie Mellon University's School of Computer Science has announced that Srouji will take part in a distinguished industry lecture on Monday, September 18 from 5:00 p.m. to 6:30 p.m. local time.

Full Interview: The Inside Story of the iPhone X 'Brain,' the A11 Bionic Chip


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Apple Started Developing A11 Bionic Chip When A8 Chip Was Released Three Years Ago

Shortly after Apple's iPhone X event this week, the company's silicon chief Johny Srouji and marketing chief Phil Schiller sat down for an interview about its new A11 Bionic chip with Mashable's editor-at-large Lance Ulanoff.


One interesting tidbit mentioned was that Apple began exploring and developing the core technologies in the A11 chip at least three years ago, when the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus launched with A8 chips.
Srouji told me that when Apple architects silicon, they start by looking three years out, which means the A11 Bionic was under development when Apple was shipping the iPhone 6 and its A8 chip. Back then we weren't even talking about AI and machine learning at a mobile level and, yet, Srouji said, "The neural engine embed, it’s a bet we made three years ahead."
Apple's three-year roadmap can change if new features are planned, like the Super Retina HD Display in iPhone X.
"The process is flexible to changes," said Srouji, who’s been with Apple since the first iPhone. If a team comes in with a request that wasn't part of the original plan, "We need to make that happen. We don't say, 'No, let me get back to my road map and, five years later, I'll give you something."
Apple senior executives Phil Schiller, left, and Johny Srouji

In fact, Schiller praised Srouji's team for its ability to "move heaven and earth" when the roadmap suddenly changes.
"There have been some critical things in the past few years, where we've asked Johny's team to do something on a different schedule, on a different plan than they had in place for years, and they moved heaven and earth and done it, and it's remarkable to see."
A11 Bionic six-core chip has two performance cores that are 25 percent faster, and four high-efficiency cores that are 70 percent faster, than the A10 chip in iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus. Early benchmarks suggest the A11 Bionic is even on par with the performance of Apple's latest 13-inch MacBook Pro models.

The A11 chip is more efficient at multi-threaded tasks thanks to a second-generation performance controller that is able to access all six of the cores simultaneously if a particular task demands it.
Gaming might use more cores, said Srouji, but something as simple as predictive texting, where the system suggests the next word to type, can tap into the high-performance CPUs, as well.
The A11 chip also has an Apple-designed neural engine that handles facial recognition for Face ID and Animoji, and other machine learning algorithms. The dual-core engine recognizes people, places, and objects, and processes machine learning tasks at up to 600 billion operations per second, according to Apple.
“When you look at applications and software, there are certain algorithms that are better off using a functional programming model,” said Srouji.

This includes the iPhone X’s new face tracking and Face ID as well as the augmented-reality-related object detection. All of them use neural networks, machine learning or deep learning (which is part of machine learning). This kind of neural processing could run on a CPU or, preferably, a GPU. “But for these neural networking kinds of programming models, implementing custom silicon that’s targeted for that application, that will perform the exact same tasks, is much more energy efficient than a graphics engine,” said Srouji.
Apple's new iPhone 8, iPhone 8 Plus, and iPhone X are all equipped with an A11 chip.

In related news, Carnegie Mellon University's School of Computer Science has announced that Srouji will take part in a distinguished industry lecture on Monday, September 18 from 5:00 p.m. to 6:30 p.m. local time.

Full Interview: The Inside Story of the iPhone X 'Brain,' the A11 Bionic Chip


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A11 Chip’s 6-Core Architecture Highlights Apple’s Continuing Push Into Heterogeneous Computing

In the recent leak of information from Apple, a device tree shared by Steven Troughton-Smith and containing information specific to the iPhone X was used to glean CPU code names, presence of an OLED display, and information on many other things. Contained within that information were also specific details regarding the architecture behind Apple's new CPU cores, dubbed "Mistral" and "Monsoon." From this, we know that the A11 contains four Mistral cores and two Monsoon cores, and it's worth taking a technical look at what Apple might be up to with this new chip.

Leaked A11 chip

While the two Monsoon cores are clear follow-ons to the two large "Hurricane" cores in the A10, the Mistral cores double the small core count of two "Zephyr" cores in the A10.

September 2016 event slide on the two Zephyr cores in the A10

Annotated die shots ultimately revealed that the small Zephyr cores appeared to be embedded within the larger Hurricane cores, taking advantage of their geographic location by sharing memory structure with the Hurricane cores.

Chipworks/TechInsights annotated A10 die photo showing small Zephyr cores embedded within large Hurricane cores (right)

The Mistral cores appear to be a departure from the above scheme, at the very least in that they have doubled in count. Specific references in the device tree are also made to memory hierarchy, suggesting that they contain independent L2 caches, meaning the Mistral cores could be more independent than their A10 ancestors.

This independence is underscored by the fact that the Mistral cores share a common "cluster-id" property, while the Monsoon cores share a distinct cluster-id of their own. Immediate comparisons were drawn to ARM's big.LITTLE heterogeneous CPU core scheme with the A10, and this seems to be going further down that path with distinct operating states for each cluster of cores. However, those leveraged shared resources in the A10 were to a certain benefit, namely die space and power consumption. The cores becoming more independent is more like a traditional big.LITTLE approach, which also entails more overhead.

This all may be an oversimplification, of course. After all, we know that each of these CPU cores is independently addressable, meaning that nothing revealed so far indicates an active Mistral or Monsoon core (or cluster) precludes the other CPU type from also being active, opening the door for mixed processor scenarios. Apple could have decided to spend effort, either in hardware, compilers, or both, to segregate instructions by complexity and ultimately forward them to the core that would execute them mostly efficiently.

Tackling problems in this manner would be another example in a long list of Apple's attempts to improve instruction execution efficiency through microarchitecture enhancements.

Any architectural changes ultimately circle back to improvements in some way. If Apple is making a change that includes doubling the amount of lower power cores, it seems inevitable it's ultimately spending more die space to do so, particularly if they have their own cache structures from L2 and down.

Yet, as pointed out by AnandTech editor Ian Cutress, ARM has begun allowing for configurable cache sizes for its offering of cores. In this specific case, a non-existent L2 cache is a valid configuration, meaning the increase in die space may not be as much as it initially seems with the small core count growth.

It's important to remember that Apple is not bound to these ARM conventions, but they are an indication of where the industry is headed. It's also important to remember that the shared L3 cache is always sitting above all of the cores, along with the GPU and image signal processor. Ultimately, these architectural changes likely boil down to a performance per watt increase, instructions per clock cycle increase, or perhaps both. Given that the small tasks a Mistral core might be activated for would likely not expose the parallelism needed for all four cores, it seem some interesting usage scenarios are a strong likelihood with Apple's A11 SoC.

To give the mixed-core ensemble of the A11 context, modern CPUs aggressively manage performance and power consumption by dynamically changing clock speeds, processor voltages, and even disabling entire CPU cores by gating clocks and powers to these cores. There are numerous references to all of these concepts in the software, in addition to several references of dynamic CPU and core control, as well as instructions per clock cycle, memory throughput thresholds, power thresholds, and even hysteresis to keep the cores from spinning up and down as the performance profile changes. No doubt many of these properties existed in the A10 as well, but the fact that Apple is increasing small core count shows Apple believes there's more benefit to be had here.

Reference to "bcm4357" in iPhone X device tree

There are more details contained than just the CPU and OLED display, however. The software specifically calls out Broadcom's BCM4357 as the Wi-Fi module. This is curious because the BCM4357 is actually a very old Wi-Fi chipset. It seems likely that Apple truncated the trailing 0 from the BCM43570, which fits the 802.11ac profile of the iPhone 7 (and thus, not an upgrade). However, Broadcom does have a BCM4375 chip on the horizon which supports the forthcoming 802.11ax standard. Unless the keynote specifically addresses the Wi-Fi speeds, we may not immediately get clarification here, given the Wi-Fi module is often embedded in a larger module, often by component integrator Murata.

Moving over to the display side, the peak brightness in nits property seems to be referenced to a full scale value, rather than an actual decimal nits value, unfortunately. This could have given insight into whether Apple sought to pursue any of the existing HDR standards on the market, which often require a peak brightness over 1000 nits.

In the audio realm, the CS35L26 reference confirms another Cirrus Logic win for the top and bottom speakers, and the CS42L75 is an undocumented audio codec. Finally, for pure trivia, there's a reference to a 'sochot' property that curiously references the A6X chip identifier. It also contains an 'N41' reference in the baseband section, which refers to an iPhone 5 codename that introduced LTE to the iPhone families. These may, however, simply be references to old devices when features or properties were first introduced.

Apple will undoubtedly reveal some details on the new A11 chip and other internal upgrades for the new iPhones at its event that's just a few hours away now, but other information will have to wait until teardown firms can get their hands on the devices and have a closer look at what's inside.

Tag: A11 chip

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Huawei Unveils AI Mobile Chipset Said to Rival A11 Processor in Upcoming iPhones

On Saturday, Chinese mobile maker Huawei unveiled its first artificial intelligence smartphone chipset, which it hopes will lure customers away from Apple's upcoming range of new iPhones and towards the Asian company's "most powerful handset yet", the Mate 10, which is set to debut next month (via Nikkei Asian Review).

Huawei touted the Kirin 970 AI mobile chipset's built-in "neural processing unit" at the IFA consumer electronics trade show in Berlin, claiming that the technology is "20 times faster" than a traditional processor.

Mate 10 handset render via Weibo
"The Kirin 970 is faster, better and more secure than anything else available [in the market]. This is the latest technology and it is the first chip to have a neural processing unit inside, which is 20 times faster than a central processing unit," said Richard Yu, chief of Huawei's consumer business group.

"It is a major breakthrough for Huawei. We will enable the first use of AI technology in mobile apps, and provide consumers with a never-before-seen AI experience right in the palm of their hands," he added.
The world's third largest smartphone maker claimed that mobile devices powered by the Kirin 970 will be able to "truly know and understand their users", by supporting real-time image recognition, voice interaction, and intelligent photography with ease.

"Compared with Samsung and Apple, we have advantages," Yu said in an interview with Reuters. "Users are in for much faster (feature) performance, longer battery life and more compact design."

According to Nikkei, the Kirin 970 integrates 5.5 billion transistors in a single square centimeter about the size of a thumbnail, which includes an octa-core central processing unit, a 12-core graphics processing unit, a dual-image signal processor, a high-speed 1.2Gbps Cat.18 modem, and AI mobile computing architecture.

The Kirin 970 is said to be based on the same 10-nanometer technology as Apple's existing A10X Fusion processor and the A11 processor that will power its new iPhone range, set to debut this month. The A10X powers Apple's latest 10.5-inch and 12.9-inch iPad Pro tablets, making them the first consumer devices to feature a chip built on Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company's advanced 10-nanometer FinFET technology.

Mark Li, an analyst at Sanford C. Bernstein, claimed that the new chip powering Huawei's Mate 10 may be better than the chips for the new iPhone range. "The new Huawei chip can be 10 times as powerful as an average smartphone chip, and also more energy efficient, when it comes to handling AI-related functions such as image and voice recognition," Li said. But he added that the popularity of the chip would depend on whether Huawei is able exploit its power in a killer AI app.

The Mate 10 is said to be a bezel-less all-screen handset with a 6-inch, 2:1 display and a 2,160 x 1,080 resolution. Like Apple's so-called "iPhone 8", the Mate 10 is also expected to feature some form of facial recognition and improved cameras.

Huawei aims to become the world's largest smartphone maker by 2021, ahead of both Apple and Samsung, and the latest market share data suggests it is making headway towards that goal.

The company shipped an estimated 38.4 million smartphones in the June quarter, a 20 percent increase over a year ago, according to research firm Strategy Analytics. By comparison, Apple reported it sold 41 million iPhones in the same period, up nearly 2 percent from 40.4 million iPhones in the year-ago quarter.

Related Roundup: iPhone 8
Tags: Huawei, A11 chip

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Huawei Unveils AI Mobile Chipset Said to Rival A11 Processor in Upcoming iPhones

On Saturday, Chinese mobile maker Huawei unveiled its first artificial intelligence smartphone chipset, which it hopes will lure customers away from Apple's upcoming range of new iPhones and towards the Asian company's "most powerful handset yet", the Mate 10, which is set to debut next month (via Nikkei Asian Review).

Huawei touted the Kirin 970 AI mobile chipset's built-in "neural processing unit" at the IFA consumer electronics trade show in Berlin, claiming that the technology is "20 times faster" than a traditional processor.

Mate 10 handset render via Weibo
"The Kirin 970 is faster, better and more secure than anything else available [in the market]. This is the latest technology and it is the first chip to have a neural processing unit inside, which is 20 times faster than a central processing unit," said Richard Yu, chief of Huawei's consumer business group.

"It is a major breakthrough for Huawei. We will enable the first use of AI technology in mobile apps, and provide consumers with a never-before-seen AI experience right in the palm of their hands," he added.
The world's third largest smartphone maker claimed that mobile devices powered by the Kirin 970 will be able to "truly know and understand their users", by supporting real-time image recognition, voice interaction, and intelligent photography with ease.

"Compared with Samsung and Apple, we have advantages," Yu said in an interview with Reuters. "Users are in for much faster (feature) performance, longer battery life and more compact design."

According to Nikkei, the Kirin 970 integrates 5.5 billion transistors in a single square centimeter about the size of a thumbnail, which includes an octa-core central processing unit, a 12-core graphics processing unit, a dual-image signal processor, a high-speed 1.2Gbps Cat.18 modem, and AI mobile computing architecture.

The Kirin 970 is said to be based on the same 10-nanometer technology as Apple's existing A10X Fusion processor and the A11 processor that will power its new iPhone range, set to debut this month. The A10X powers Apple's latest 10.5-inch and 12.9-inch iPad Pro tablets, making them the first consumer devices to feature a chip built on Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company's advanced 10-nanometer FinFET technology.

Mark Li, an analyst at Sanford C. Bernstein, claimed that the new chip powering Huawei's Mate 10 may be better than the chips for the new iPhone range. "The new Huawei chip can be 10 times as powerful as an average smartphone chip, and also more energy efficient, when it comes to handling AI-related functions such as image and voice recognition," Li said. But he added that the popularity of the chip would depend on whether Huawei is able exploit its power in a killer AI app.

The Mate 10 is said to be a bezel-less all-screen handset with a 6-inch, 2:1 display and a 2,160 x 1,080 resolution. Like Apple's so-called "iPhone 8", the Mate 10 is also expected to feature some form of facial recognition and improved cameras.

Huawei aims to become the world's largest smartphone maker by 2021, ahead of both Apple and Samsung, and the latest market share data suggests it is making headway towards that goal.

The company shipped an estimated 38.4 million smartphones in the June quarter, a 20 percent increase over a year ago, according to research firm Strategy Analytics. By comparison, Apple reported it sold 41 million iPhones in the same period, up nearly 2 percent from 40.4 million iPhones in the year-ago quarter.

Related Roundup: iPhone 8
Tags: Huawei, A11 chip

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iPhone 7s Plus Bare Logic Board Surfaces With A11 Chip and Intel Modem Markings

Benjamin Geskin‏ today shared a photo of what appears to be four bare logic boards that are likely for the so-called iPhone 7s Plus.

Alleged logic board likely for iPhone 7s Plus via Benjamin Geskin

We know the logic board is likely for the iPhone 7s Plus because the placement of the screw holes is consistent with the iPhone 7 Plus logic board, while the top narrow portion is wider than the iPhone 7 logic board.

The so-called iPhone 8, meanwhile, is expected to have a stacked logic board design with a L-shaped two-cell battery pack, which effectively rules out this logic board being for the widely rumored OLED display model.

The logic board isn't populated with components, but there are pads etched on it that suggest the iPhone 7s Plus will be powered by an Apple A11 chip, while at least one model appears to have an Intel modem.

We know this because blurry images of the alleged A11 chip were shared by Chinese social media account GeekBar last week, and the rear design of the chip is consistent with the pad on the bare logic board.

Alleged photos of Apple's A11 chip via GeekBar

Apple's A11 chip reportedly uses a new 10-nanometer FinFET manufacturing process introduced by supplier TSMC, and it will undoubtedly be faster than the A10 Fusion chip in the iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus.

As for the modem being supplied by Intel or Qualcomm, the modem pad pattern is virtually identical to the one on the iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus logic board, and those smartphones are equipped with Intel's XMM7360 chip.

While not pictured, Apple will likely continue to dual source modems from Qualcomm for its upcoming iPhone lineup. Qualcomm's legal dispute with Apple, however, could push more orders in Intel's direction.

The logic board is etched with a "3217" timestamp, corresponding with the 32nd week of 2017, suggesting it was manufactured in early August.

The rest of the logic board is largely the same as the bare iPhone 7 logic board that surfaced last August — and proved to be real.

Alleged iPhone 7s display assembly via Slashleaks

In related news, photos of what could be the iPhone 7s's display assembly have surfaced on Chinese social platform Weibo. If real, the part reveals no surprises for the iPhone 7s, which is expected to look similar to the iPhone 7.

Apple is expected to announce its new iPhone lineup at a September event, potentially alongside a new 4K Apple TV and Apple Watch Series 3.

Related Roundup: iPhone 8
Tags: Intel, A11 chip

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Blurry Images Allegedly Depict A11 Processor Set to Power ‘iPhone 8’

Images purporting to show the A11 series chip that will power the upcoming "iPhone 8" emerged online today, suggesting that Apple's processor is already making its way through iPhone assembly plants.

All iPhone models coming in the fall are expected to use the A11 chip, including the iterative "S" cycle upgrades to Apple's existing 4.7-inch and 5.5-inch iPhones. The processor relies on a new 10-nanometer FinFET manufacturing process introduced by Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC), the sole supplier of the new chip.

Images via Slashleaks

TSMC was said to have reached the exclusive deal with Apple last year thanks to its advanced device packaging techniques, capable of higher-width memory buses and lower-power operation.

As such, the A11 processor will be faster and likely more power efficient than the current A10 found in the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, translating to speedier overall performance and better battery life for the upcoming devices.

Apple has a major redesign in store for the iPhone 8, which will feature a glass body and edge-to-edge OLED display that does away with the Home button, and a new facial recognition system that may well replace its Touch ID fingerprint authentication.

Related Roundup: iPhone 8
Tag: A11 chip

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TSMC Begins Production of A11 Processor After Initial Manufacturing Issues Resolved

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) has commenced production of Apple's A11 processor, according to a new report by DigiTimes. The chip is expected to power the company's redesigned OLED "iPhone 8", scheduled to launch in the fall.

TSMC is the sole supplier of A11 chips, which could also make their way into the upgraded "S" cycle models of the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus and potentially upcoming iPad refreshes this year, too.


TSMC originally aimed to start producing the chip in April with a view to completing 50 million units by July, but production was delayed because of issues in the 10-nanometer FinFET manufacturing process. However, those problems have now been solved, according to today's report.
TSMC has begun 10nm chip production for Apple's next-generation iPhone 8 series, the sources said. Production was once affected by issues involving stacking components in the backend integrated fan-out packaging process, but they have already been solved, the sources said.
Apart from faster A11 processors, all three rumored iPhone models may include glass bodies and wireless charging (though rumors disagree on this point). It is unclear if the two LCD models will feature the same edge-to-edge display rumored for the higher-end device and what other features will be included.

KGI Securities analyst Ming-Chi Kuo has suggested that production issues could result in a "severe" shortage of Apple's upcoming "tenth anniversary" OLED iPhone in the months following its rumored September launch, but other sources claim production is on schedule.

TSMC was also the sole maker of the A10 chip in the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which helped lead the chip maker to revenue growth towards the end of 2016.

Related Roundup: iPhone 8 (2017)
Tags: TSMC, A11 chip

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TSMC to Begin Production of ‘iPhone 8’ and ‘iPhone 7s’ A11 Chip in April

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company will begin volume production on Apple's A11 chip in April, with a production capacity of 50 million units of the chip aimed to be completed before July. The A11 chip is slated to power the new iPhone lineup launching later in 2017, including what is believed to be iterative "iPhone 7s" and "iPhone 7s Plus" updates, along with the specced-out "iPhone 8."

The A11 chips will be built on a 10-nanometer FinFET manufacturing process and are packed with a "wafer-level integrated fan-out" technology, according to a report by the Economic Daily News (via DigiTimes). For the iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus, TSMC currently manufactures the A10 chip on a 16nm FinFET process. The jump to 10nm is tipped to yield chips that are more power efficient, and subsequently provide end user experiences that are snappier.


Before the end of 2017, TSMC is expected to "maintain a capacity" for producing a total of 100 million of Apple's A11 chips.
Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) will begin volume production of Apple's A11 chips in April and will prepare a capacity for production of 50 million units of the chip before July, according to a Chinese-language Economic Daily News (EDN) report.

The A11 chips, which will power the upcoming iPhone series slated for launch in September 2017, will be built on a 10 nm FinFET process and packed with a wafer-level integrated fan-out (InFO) packaging technology, said the report.
Last summer it was confirmed that TSMC would become the sole supplier of the A11 chip, with the design of the chip reportedly being completed around that time as well. The supplier was also the sole maker of the A10 chip in the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which ultimately helped lead TSMC to revenue growth towards the end of last year.

TSMC company spokesperson Michael Kramer earlier this month said that an official decision regarding the creation of a major production plant in the United States would now be held off until 2018. Kramer said the company would lose much of its "flexibility" if it moved production stateside, but if it does end up building a U.S. plant for the production of Apple chips it could become an investment worth upwards of $16 billion.

Related Roundup: iPhone 8 (2017)
Tags: TSMC, A11 chip

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